The transition of companies to a new revolution 

Diego Fernandez Casal

PLM & Industry 4.0 Project Manager at NTT DATA

The history of industry is the story of how we humans never stopped improving and seeking new solutions. Beginning with the first industrial revolution, which introduced us to the power of steam and mechanization, we embarked on a journey that would forever change the way we work and interact.

Today, we find ourselves in the midst of the fourth revolution, known as Industry 4.0, which merges physical and digital capabilities through technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), 3D printing and robotics, transforming not only the way products are manufactured, but also how companies operate and relate to their customers. Meanwhile, the emerging Industry 5.0 promises to take this transformation a step further, reintegrating the human dimension at the center of technological processes, focusing on personalization and sustainability, striking a balance between technological efficiency and human creativity.

Moving into Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 marks a significant turning point compared to previous industrial revolutions by integrating digital systems at the heart of manufacturing processes. This era is distinguished by the merging of physical and digital capabilities, enabled in large part by the irruption of the internet, which has transformed not only how products are manufactured, but also how companies operate and relate to their customers. The widespread adoption of the internet has been the catalyst for the development of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and robotics, radically transforming industrial operations.

The Internet as a pioneer

At the core of Industry 4.0, the internet emerges as the real game changer, establishing the necessary infrastructure for unprecedented interconnectivity. This digital revolution began with the ability to connect devices, systems and people across the global network. The evolution to IoT is a manifestation of how this digital foundation has enabled real-time data collection and analysis, ensuring that physical operations globally can be optimized for efficiency and flexibility.

IoT: the operational realization of the Internet

The IoT connects devices and systems in a cohesive network, enabling automation and interconnectivity that were previously unimaginable. This connectivity not only optimizes operations, but also paves the way to smart factories where machines communicate and make decisions autonomously. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning play pivotal roles in this scenario, analyzing huge data sets to predict outcomes, optimize operations and improve decision-making processes. For more details on how AI drives experiences, see our article on Generative AI. 


The integration of these technologies fosters an environment where companies can thrive in the face of changing market demands and technological advances. Industry 4.0 goes beyond adapting, it is a comprehensive change in how companies operate, produce and compete in a global marketplace.

The real-world impact

The practical applications of Industry 4.0 technologies are as diverse as they are transformative, reshaping industries in ways we would previously say were science fiction. Across sectors from automotive to healthcare to agriculture, companies are harnessing the power of IoT, AI, smart robotics and big data to revolutionize their operations, improve efficiency and deliver value to customers. These examples demonstrate the potential of Industry 4.0 not only to optimize production processes but also to address complex challenges, improve quality of life and drive sustainable growth. By examining these cases, we gain insight into the tangible impacts of digital transformation across the global economy.


Tesla is recognized for its innovation in the automotive industry, particularly in the integration of intelligent robotics and AI into its manufacturing processes. According to Tesla, these advances aim to increase production speed and efficiency, setting new standards for the sector.


In healthcare, Philips is exploring the use of IoT and AI through its HealthSuite digital platform, which seeks to collect and analyze patient data with the aim of providing personalized care plans. According to Philips, this exploration of technology could help improve patient outcomes and operational efficiency.


John Deere applies AI and IoT in its equipment to innovate farming practices. The company reports that its smart tractors, equipped with sensors and GPS technology, facilitate precision farming, which could optimize crop yields and reduce waste.



Siemens implements smart factory concepts, leveraging digital twins, IoT and AI, with the aim of optimizing production. The company suggests that these virtual replicas of physical systems allow manufacturing processes to be simulated, tested and optimized in a virtual environment prior to actual implementation, which could reduce development time and costs, while increasing efficiency and flexibility in production.


Mass customization allows companies to manufacture products tailored to individual customer preferences without compromising efficiency. Adidas, for example, uses 3D printing in the fashion industry, where unique pieces can be created tailored to the consumer's needs and desires.


By adopting these innovations, companies are not only improving their operational efficiency, but also contributing to a more sustainable and personalized future.

However, this transformation also poses significant challenges. Resistance to change, technology integration into existing systems, and concerns about labor displacement are critical issues that must be addressed to ensure a successful transition to a more connected and automated future.

Challenges and resistance 

Despite the potential benefits, the transition to Industry 4.0 is not without its challenges. Traditional industries often struggle with integrating new technologies into existing systems, and there is widespread concern about labor displacement due to automation. In addition, the digital divide represents a significant barrier, limiting access to Industry 4.0 technologies in less developed regions. Addressing these challenges requires a joint effort by businesses, governments, and educational institutions to ensure a smooth and inclusive transition, emphasizing the development of new skills and the creation of new job opportunities in the digital economy.

While the challenges of integrating new technologies and bridging the digital divide are considerable, the evolution towards Industry 5.0 invites us to contemplate a future where these barriers are not only overcome, but also transformed into opportunities.

The horizon of Industry 5.0 

Industry 5.0 represents the next evolutionary leap, where the focus shifts back to the human element within the technological framework.

Unlike Industry 4.0, which focuses on automation and efficiency through technology, Industry 5.0 emphasizes human-machine collaboration, worker well-being, personalization and sustainability. This paradigm shift reflects a more holistic and sustainable view of production, where technology serves as an amplifier of human potential rather than a substitute.

The world sees Industry 5.0 as an opportunity to harmonize economic objectives with environmental and social ones. The European Union, for example, has adopted Industry 5.0 as part of its research and innovation strategy, underlining the importance of an economy that works for people and the planet. This global vision implies not only progress in terms of efficiency and productivity but also resilience, equity and sustainability.

As we discussed earlier, companies such as Adidas are experimenting with the production of footwear using recycled materials, demonstrating how Industry 5.0 can lead to more sustainable practices that reduce waste and carbon footprint.

Industry 5.0 is heading toward an era of greater inclusion and humanization of technology. As we explore the potential of artificial intelligence and advanced robotics, the key will be how these tools can be used to amplify our human capabilities, rather than replace them. The future direction of Industry 5.0 also involves greater attention to ethics in AI, the governance of technology, and the development of policies that ensure that the benefits of these innovations are shared equitably among all strata of society.



As we move from Industry 4.0 to 5.0, it is crucial that businesses, public policy makers and educators proactively and thoughtfully embrace these changes. By creating an environment that prioritizes innovation, sustainability and human-oriented technologies, we can pave the way for a brighter future. It is critical to invest in training and skills development that aligns with new technological demands, promoting an inclusive and equitable transition. In this way, we ensure that the advances of the industrial revolution are accessible to all and bring tangible benefits to global society, marking a milestone in how we address the challenges and opportunities of tomorrow.

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